Karpinski, Zbigniew; Wysienska-Di Carlo, Kinga Anna
Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Using longitudinal data from six waves of the Polish Panel Survey between 1988-2013, we test hypotheses derived from human capital and status theories to explain the effect of gender and parenthood on labor market situation and income. Specifically, we assume that if human capital differences, measured in our analysis by length of employment and number of job interruptions, explain employment risks and income, we should expect to observe little variation in the effect of job-related experience and job interruptions between males and females, as well as between parents and non-parents of the same gender. We apply event history analysis with time varying variables to model the survival in employment and unemployment for respondents with children of different ages. As parenthood and income are nested within individual respondents, we apply panel data regression models to estimate the effect of parental status on income. We find that, regardless of experience and job interruptions, having children up to 12 years of age has a beneficial effect for men and an adverse effect for women when it comes to their chances of finding a job after an episode of unemployment. This is consistent with status but not human capital theories. The effect of parenthood on income is less straightforward, and depends on the age of females and type of employment. We also show how changes in relevant labor laws correlate with observed effects, and use qualitative interviews of a subsample of unemployed respondents, conducted in 2012, to illustrate the patterns emerging from our analysis.